June 9, 2013

Bad sleep

Posts tagged with Sleep

The effects of sleep deprivation are some of the most common and dangerous outcomes of life in extreme environments. Stress and the disruptiveness of life in extremes can lead to a reduction in the quantity and quality of sleep. People in hard places may also have to sleep at odd times, in conflict with their circadian rhythms.

Sleep loss may be acute, as in a single episode of staying awake for many hours, or chronic, as in repeatedly getting only a few hours of poor quality sleep every day. Either way, bad sleep has corrosive effects on mental and physical wellbeing. It undermines the ability to make good decisions and perform critical tasks, which makes it dangerous as well as unpleasant.

In Chapter 4 of Extreme we consider the nature and impact of bad sleep, and ways of blunting its effects.

There is a large body of research on sleep and sleep deprivation. We cite the following scholarly articles in Extreme:

  • Åkerstedt, T. (2003). Shift work and disturbed sleep/wakefulness. Occupational Medicine, 53, 89-94.
  • Antonenko, D. et al. (2013). Napping to renew learning capacity: enhanced encoding after stimulation of sleep slow oscillations. European Journal of Neuroscience, 37, 1142-51.
  • Asaoka, S. et al. (2012). The effects of a night-time nap on the error-monitoring functions during extended wakefulness. Sleep, 35, 871-878.
  • Baranski, J. V. et al. (2007). Effects of sleep loss on team decision making: motivational loss or motivational gain? Human Factors, 49, 646-660.
  • Barger, L. K et al. (2014). Sleep and cognitive function of crewmembers and mission controllers working 24-h shifts during a simulated 105-day spaceflight mission. Acta Astronautica, 93, 230-242.
  • Barnes, C. M. & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2009). Sleep deprivation and decision-making teams: Burning the midnight oil or playing with fire? Academy of Management Review, 34, 56-66.
  • Bennet, G. (1973). Medical and psychological problems in the 1972 singlehanded transatlantic yacht race. The Lancet, 302, 747–754.
  • Bennet, G. (1974). Psychological breakdown at sea: Hazards of singlehanded ocean sailing. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 47, 189-210
  • Bjorvatn, B., Kecklund, G. & Åkerstedt, T. (1998). Rapid adaptation to night work at an oil platform, but slow readaptation following return home. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 40, 601-608.
  • Blaivas, A. J. et al. (2007). Quantifying microsleep to help assess subjective sleepiness. Sleep Medicine, 8, 156-159.
  • Boggild, H. & Knutsson, A. (1999). Shift work, risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health, 25, 85-99.
  • Buguet, A. (2007). Sleep under extreme environments: effects of heat and cold exposure, altitude, hyperbaric pressure and microgravity in space. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 262, 145-152.
  • Cappuccio, F. P. et al. (2011). Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. European Heart Journal, 32, 1484-1492.
  • Caruso, C. C., Lusk, S. L. & Gillespie, B. W. (2004). Relationship of work schedules to gastrointestinal diagnoses, symptoms, and medication use in auto factory workers. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 46, 586-598.
  • Connor, J. et al. (2001). The role of driver sleepiness in car crashes: a systematic review of epidemiological studies. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 33, 31-41.
  • Dawson, D. & Reid, K. (1997).  Fatigue, alcohol and performance impairment. Nature, 388, 235.
  • Dement, W. C. & Vaughan, C. (1999). The promise of sleep. New York: Delacorte.
  • Dijk, D. J. et al. (2001). Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 281, R1647-R1664
  • Durmer, J. S. & Dinges, D. F. (2005). Neurocognitive consequences of sleep deprivation. Seminars in Neurology, 25: 117-129.
  • Faraut, B. et al. (2011). Benefits of napping and an extended duration of recovery sleep on alertness and immune cells after acute sleep restriction. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 25, 16-24.
  • Grandner, M. A. et al. (2010). Mortality associated with short sleep duration: The evidence, the possible mechanisms, and the future. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14, 191-203.
  • Harrison, Y. & Horne, J. A. (1999). One night of sleep loss impairs innovative thinking and flexible decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 78, 128-145.
  • Harrison, Y. & Horne, J. A. (2000). The impact of sleep deprivation on decision making: a review. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6, 236-249.
  • Hayashi, M., Ito, S. & Hori, T. (1999). The effects of a 20-min nap at noon on sleepiness, performance and EEG activity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 32, 173-180.
  • Hoeksema-van Orden, C. Y. D., Gaillard, A. W. K. & Buunk, B. P. Social loafing under fatigue. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1179-1190.
  • Hofer-Tinguely, G. et al. (2005). Sleep inertia: Performance changes after sleep, rest and active waking. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 22, 323-331.
  • Hurdiel, R. et al. (2014). Sleep restriction and degraded reaction-time performance in Figaro solo sailing races. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32, 172-4
  • Imbernon, E. et al. (1993). Effects on health and social well-being of on-call shifts. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 35, 1131-1137.
  • Ingre, M. et al. (2006). Subjective sleepiness and accident risk: avoiding the ecological fallacy. Journal of Sleep Research, 15, 142-148.
  • Johnson, P. L. et al. (2010). Sleep architecture changes during a trek from 1400 to 5000 m in the Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Sleep Research, 19, 148-156.
  • Kanas, N. & Manzey, D. (2008). Space Psychology and Psychiatry (2nd Edn). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Lau, H., Tucker, M. A. & Fishbein, W. (2010). Daytime napping: Effects on human direct associative and relational memory. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 93, 554-560.
  • Lorist, M. M. & Tops, M. (2003). Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition. Brain and Cognition, 53, 82-94.
  • Lowden, A. et al. (2010). Eating and shift work – effects on habits, metabolism, and performance. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 36, 150-162.
  • Luyster, F. S. et al. (2012). Sleep: A health imperative. Sleep, 35, 727-734.
  • Martin, P. (2002). Counting sheep: The science and pleasures of sleep and dreams. London: HarperCollins.
  • Mednick, S. C. et al. (2002). The restorative effect of naps on perceptual deterioration. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 677-681.
  • Mednick, S. C. et al. (2008). Comparing the benefits of caffeine, naps and placebo on verbal, motor and perceptual memory. Behavioural Brain Research, 193, 79-86.
  • Megdal, S. P. et al. (2005). Night work and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cancer, 41, 2023-2032.
  • Mignot, E. (2013). The perfect hypnotic? Science, 340, 36-38.
  • Milner, C. E. & Cote, K. A. (2009). Benefits of napping in healthy adults: impact of nap length, time of day, age, and experience with napping. Journal of Sleep Research, 18, 272-281.
  • Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Y. et al. (2012). Effect of short-term acclimatization to high altitude on sleep and nocturnal breathing. Sleep, 35, 419-423.
  • Oswald, I. (1974). Sleep. (3rd edn). Harmondsworth UK: Penguin
  • Pallesen, S. et al. (2007). Prevalence and risk factors of subjective sleepiness in the general adult population. Sleep, 30, 619-624.
  • Rajaratnam, S. M. W. & Arendt, J. (2001). Health in a 24-h society. The Lancet, 358, 999-1005.
  • Rihel, J. & Schier, A. F. (2013). Sites of action of sleep and wake drugs: Insights from model organisms. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23,831–840
  • Santy PA, et al. (1988). Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 59, 1094–7.
  • Schernhammer, E. S. et al. (2001). Night-shift work and risk of colorectal cancer in the nurses’ health study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93, 825-828.
  • Shepperd, J. A. (1993). Productivity loss in performance groups: A motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 67-81.
  • Signal, T. L. et al. (2012). Duration of sleep inertia after napping during simulated night work and in extended operations. Chronobiology International, 29, 769-779.
  • Stevens, R. G. (2009). Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 963-970.
  • Takahashi, M. and Arito, H. (2000). Maintenance of alertness and performance by a brief nap after lunch under prior sleep deficit. Sleep, 23, 813-9.
  • Tsai, L. L. et al. (2005). Impairment of error monitoring following sleep deprivation. Sleep, 28, 707-713.
  • Vgontzas, A. N. et al. (2007). Daytime napping after a night of sleep loss decreases sleepiness, improves performance, and causes beneficial changes in cortisol and interleukin-6 secretion. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism, 292, E253-E261.
  • Williamson, A. M. and Feyer, A-M. (2000). Moderate sleep deprivation produces impairments in cognitive and motor performance equivalent to legally prescribed levels of alcohol intoxication. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57, 649-655.
  • Williamson, A. et al. (2011). The link between fatigue and safety. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 43, 498-515.


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